Synthetic biology refers to manmade biological systems, cells, cell components or organisms that do not exist in nature. Synthetic biology is a field of science combining biology, engineering, robotics, computer science and artificial intelligence. The desired genetic codes are developed with the aid of computers, based on which chemically synthetised DNA is produced. The DNA is inserted into a cell as part of an organism's genome and as the cell divides, all new cells produced carry the new genetic information. The methods of synthetic biology can be used for, for example, for innovative ways of upcycling industrial side streams, waste and carbon dioxide into new materials.