In an ever more complex world, we are in dire need of integrative tools to solve widespread societal and sustainability concerns. The development of science-policy interfaces is often omitted in sustainable development policy documents both nationally and globally. Does the scientific support for sustainable development policies really work well enough to warrant this indifference, or are we instead incapable of addressing novel challenges? This benchmark study analyses different models of scientific support for sustainable development policies, with case examples from various countries. The study was commissioned by the Finnish Expert Panel on Sustainable Development, hosted by Sitra. The panel inspires action on sustainable development by giving science a voice on the Finnish political scene, and supports the Finnish National Commission on Sustainable Development.